Derived from the Greek words phyto (plant) and plankton (made to wander or drift), aquarium phytoplankton are photosynthetic microscopic organisms that live in both Fresh and Saltwater environments.
Some aquarium phytoplankton are bacteria, some are protists, and most are single-celled plants. Among the common kinds are cyanobacteria, silica-encased diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, and others. Cyanobacteria and diatoms are generally considered unwanted in and aquarium ecosystem but having some benign green algae in the tank can help crowd out unwanted bacterial and aquarium phytoplankton blooms as well as provide needed nutrients for corals and other microfauna.
Like land plants, aquarium phytoplankton have chlorophyll to capture sunlight, and they use photosynthesis to turn it into chemical energy. They consume carbon dioxide, and release oxygen. All aquarium phytoplankton photosynthesize, but some get additional energy by consuming other organisms.
Aquarium phytoplankton growth depends on the availability of carbon dioxide, sunlight, and nutrients. Aquarium phytoplankton, like land plants, require nutrients such as nitrate, phosphate, silicate, and calcium at various levels depending on the species. They also require trace amounts of iron which limits phytoplankton growth in large areas of the ocean because iron concentrations are very low.
Through photosynthesis, phytoplankton consume carbon dioxide on a scale equivalent to forests and other land plants. Some of this carbon is carried to the deep ocean when phytoplankton die, and some is transferred to different layers of the ocean as phytoplankton are eaten by other creatures, which themselves reproduce, generate waste, and die.
Aquarium phytoplankton can also be purchased and “spot fed” corals and other filter feeders in the aquarium.
A Concentrated Blend Of Green And Brown Marine aquarium Phytoplankton
Natural Source Of Carotenoids For Coloration; Enhanced To Increase The Bioavailability Of Important Nutrients Such As Protein, Lipids And Others
No refrigeration required and no added dyes or synthetic pigments
Blended With The Proper Ratio Of Fatty Acids, Carbohydrates, And Proteins Thus Corals Expend Less Energy To Derive Nutritional Benefit
Provides Essential Fatty Acids, Proteins, Vitamins, Amino Acids, With Biological Carotenoids For Invertebrate Diet
Description Aquarium Phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water. Aquarium Phytoplankton serve as the base of the aquatic food web, providing an essential ecological function for all aquatic life. Clams (and other bivalves), soft corals, sponges, zooplankton and copepods are all known to feed directly on aquarium phytoplankton. Ingredients Proprietary blend of live Nannochloropsis oculata, Isochrysis Galbana (T-iso), Tetraselmis chuii and Dunaliella tertiolecta plankton for a perfect balance of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids, including DHA, EPA, ArA and others. This product is 100% Natural, with no additives or preservatives. About 30,700,000 cells per milliliter. Grown under strain-specific protocols to increase lipid and protein production. Nannochloropsis oculata is guaranteed to provide at least 50% lipid content (mostly EPA fatty acid) and 20% protein content; Isochrysis galbana provides at least 17% lipid content (mostly DHA) and 25% of protein content; Tetraselmis provides at least 17% lipid content including minimum 4% of ArA. Directions Before use, shake bottle, shut skimmer off and dose. Wait one hour to re-start skimmer. Dosage Recommended dose is 1 ml per 1 gallon of aquarium water three times a week. You cannot overfeed, as these are live aquarium Phytoplankton, which if not consumed immediately will remain alive in your tank.
Coral Reefing Products, LLC
5 Bottle Package – Tisbe Pods, Tiger Pods, Marine Rotifers, Green Phyto(Nannochloropsis Oculata) and Gold Phyto(Isochrysis Galbana)
This Complete Live Package Includes:
600+ Live Tisbe Pods(Tisbe biminiensis)
500+ Live Tiger Pods(Tigriopus californicus)
8 oz. Bottle Marine Rotifers
8 oz. Bottle Live Green Phyto(Nannochloropsis Oculata)
8 oz. Bottle Live Gold Phyto(Isochrysis galbana)
Aquarium Phytoplankton are photosynthesizing microscopic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth. They are agents for “primary production,” the creation of organic compounds from carbon dioxide dissolved in the water, a process that sustains the aquatic food web.
Phytoplankton obtain energy through the process of photosynthesis and must therefore live in the well-lit surface layer of an ocean, sea, lake, or other body of water. Phytoplankton account for about half of all photosynthetic activity on Earth. Their cumulative energy fixation in carbon compounds is the basis for the vast majority of oceanic and also many freshwater food webs.
The term phytoplankton encompasses all photoautotrophic microorganisms in aquatic food webs. Phytoplankton serve as the base of the aquatic food web, providing an essential ecological function for all aquatic life. However, unlike terrestrial communities, where most autotrophs are plants, phytoplankton are a diverse group. There are about 5,000 known species of marine phytoplankton.
In terms of numbers, the most important groups of phytoplankton include the diatoms, cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates, although many other groups of algae are represented. One group, the coccolithophorids, is responsible (in part) for the release of significant amounts of dimethyl sulfide into the atmosphere. Different types of phytoplankton fill different trophic levels within varying ecosystems. In oligotrophic oceanic regions such as the Sargasso Sea or the South Pacific Gyre, phytoplankton is dominated by the small sized cells, called picoplankton and nanoplankton (also referred to as picoflagellates and nanoflagellates), mostly composed of cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus) and picoeucaryotes such as Micromonas. Within more productive ecosystems, dominated by upwelling or high terrestrial inputs, larger dinoflagellates are the more dominant phytoplankton and reflect a larger portion of the biomass.
Phytoplankton are crucially dependent on minerals. These are primarily macronutrients such as nitrate, phosphate or silicic acid, whose availability is governed by the balance between the so-called biological pump and upwelling of deep, nutrient-rich waters. However, across large regions of the World Ocean such as the Southern Ocean, phytoplankton are also limited by the lack of the micronutrient iron. Phytoplankton depend on Vitamin B for survival. Areas in the ocean have been identified as having a major lack of Vitamin B, and correspondingly, phytoplankton.
Phytoplankton absorb energy from the Sun and nutrients from the water to produce their own food. In the process of photosynthesis, phytoplankton release molecular oxygen (O2) into the water. It is estimated that between 50% and 85% of the world’s oxygen is produced via phytoplankton photosynthesis. The rest is produced via photosynthesis on land by plants. Furthermore, phytoplankton photosynthesis has controlled the atmospheric CO2/O2 balance since the early Precambrian Eon.
In the early twentieth century, Alfred C. Redfield found the similarity of the phytoplankton’s elemental composition to the major dissolved nutrients in the deep ocean. Redfield proposed that the ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus (16:1) in the ocean was controlled by the phytoplankton’s requirements which subsequently release nitrogen and phosphorus as they are remineralized.
Aquarium phytoplankton are a key food item in both aquaculture and mariculture. Both utilize phytoplankton as food for the animals being farmed. In mariculture, the aquarium phytoplankton is naturally occurring and is introduced into enclosures with the normal circulation of seawater. In aquaculture, aquarium phytoplankton must be obtained and introduced directly. The aquarium plankton can either be collected from a body of water or cultured, though the former method is seldom used. Aquarium phytoplankton is used as a foodstock for the production of rotifers, which are in turn used to feed other organisms. Aquarium phytoplankton is also used to feed many varieties of aquacultured molluscs, including pearl oysters and giant clams.
The production of aquarium phytoplankton under artificial conditions is itself a form of aquaculture. Aquarium Phytoplankton is cultured for a variety of purposes, including foodstock for other aquacultured organisms, a nutritional supplement for captive invertebrates in aquaria. Culture sizes range from small-scale laboratory cultures of less than 1L to several tens of thousands of liters for commercial aquaculture. Regardless of the size of the culture, certain conditions must be provided for efficient growth of plankton. The majority of cultured aquarium plankton is marine, and seawater of a specific gravity of 1.010 to 1.026 may be used as a culture medium. This water must be sterilized, usually by either high temperatures in an autoclave or by exposure to ultraviolet radiation, to prevent biological contamination of the culture. Various fertilizers are added to the culture medium to facilitate the growth of aquarium plankton. A culture must be aerated or agitated in some way to keep aquarium plankton suspended, as well as to provide dissolved carbon dioxide for photosynthesis. In addition to constant aeration, most cultures are manually mixed or stirred on a regular basis. Light must be provided for the growth of aquarium phytoplankton. The colour temperature of illumination should be approximately 6,500 K, but values from 4,000 K to upwards of 20,000 K have been used successfully. The duration of light exposure should be approximately 16 hours daily; this is the most efficient artificial day length.
These images show the vast variation in Phytoplankton and Aquarium Phytoplankton